What is Fiber Optics? Understand its Concept and Advantages

An optical fiber is basically composed of dielectric material (generally silica), according to a cylindrical structure, transparent and flexible, of microscopic dimensions, comparable to a human hair.

The basic cylindrical structure of the optical fiber is formed by a central region, called core, surrounded by a layer, also of dielectric material, called shell.

The fiber optic shell composition, with slightly lower refractive index material than the core, provides conditions for the propagation of light energy through the fiber core, in a total internal reflection process.

The main advantages of optical fiber are:

Allow very high transmission rates, in the order of Gbps (billions of bits per second). The transmission rate depends on the equipment that will perform full immunity to external electromagnetic interference, providing maximum allowable distances greater than on metallic cables, and can be used in places with high noise.

Because it is insulating, it is the most suitable way to interconnect buildings and systems with different ground, which eliminates the problem of electric conduction between different potentials. It also eliminates the problem of conducting lightning strikes on the cable.

It presents a high degree of security for the information carried. Any attempt to pick up messages along a fiber is easily detected as it requires the diversion of a considerable portion of transmitted light power. They are lightweight and have very small dimensions.

FIBER OPTIC was discovered in the 1970s and used for communication only in 1977 by GTE and AT & T, which broke the taboos and used optical cables in circuits. To buy fiber option related products visit Sopto.



The volume and weight of optical cables is much lower than conventional copper cables to carry the same amount of information, making it easier to handle and install cables.


Fiber-optic communications systems have a much higher transmission capacity than systems in wire ropes.

Due to the low attenuation, they can transmit signals at very large distances.

With optical amplifier technology, inter-city transmission is possible up to hundreds of kilometers away without intermediate stations, increasing system reliability, reducing initial investment and maintenance costs.


Because they are made of dielectric material, optical fibers are completely immune to general noise and electromagnetic interference, such as those caused by electric discharges and high voltage installations.


Optical fibers do not interfere with each other, thus eliminating a common problem faced in systems with conventional cables, especially in high frequency transmissions, eliminating the need for shielding that accounts for a significant part of the cost of metallic cables.


  • Transmission cables, long-distance (Indicative figure of the network via submarine cables)
  • Control of airplanes
  • Instrumentation
  • Connection between computers and peripherals
  • Cable communication for railway and electrical networks
  • Communication on cable television


  • Intercity telephony circuits. Almost all cities in Brazil are already interconnected by optical fibers.
  • Local Area Network Connections (LANs and WANs).
  • Communication networks in railways and subways.
  • Networks for control of electricity distribution
  • Data transmission networks.
  • Distribution networks of television and radio broadcast signals.
  • Networks of studios, cables of television cameras.
  • Industrial networks, in process monitoring and control.
  • Transmission of data processing signals from computer to computer and from computer to terminals.
  • Interconnection of circuits inside equipment.
  • Control applications in general (factories, machinery).
  • In motor vehicles, aircraft, trains and ships.
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